tag 标签: bldc

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  • 热度 3
    2019-10-23 21:19
    1004 次阅读|
    2 个评论
    【MM32 Motor-DK试用体验】开箱记
    在当今中美“摩擦”的环境下,继中兴事件后 加快“国产化替代”迅速成为了电子业界的共识,本人从事服务器风扇产品开发工作,关注国产MCU也有段时间了,一次偶尔机会面包板社区看到了灵动微的电机开发板体验活动,于是果断提交了申请,一段时间后以为没戏了,一天突然收到面包板“奔跑的五花肉”管理员(这哥们今年的身价飙了几倍!)通知说申请通过了,过了几天就收到了发过来的快递,收到后当时也没有急着拆包,开发板玩多了也没什么新鲜感了,过了一天才想起来拿出来看一下,看看本土芯片厂家的开发板是个什么样子,打开的第一眼我惊到了,比我想像中的要好很多,先不说性能如何单从外观来看,便可看出“灵动微“是在用心做事。 1.底板加核心板设计结构,方便更换不同的芯片型号。可随时插拔的电源和电机接口,不过HALL接口端子这里应该配一下母座最好,如果手上电机接口不一样要想办法转接一下。整齐合不断的元件布局可以看出Layout工程师的功力非浅,应该在电机行业浪迹多年。 2.别外亮点是板子黄色的底坐,不像有别的开发板随便装4个螺丝柱。 另外背面还配了一个散热片。 看了一个开发板规格文档,资源配置都能满足电机产品的开发应用。 细节决定成败,想必芯片开发环节也差不到哪里去,有时间找个电机再测试性能到底如何。
  • 热度 3
    2014-2-28 19:48
    1294 次阅读|
    0 个评论
    Here's a development that—if true—will likely gain the interest of motor control engineers and software developers in everything from industrial automation and robotics to automobile engine and drive chain applications. Specifically, a small Canadian start-up called Alizem has released motor control software IP that it claims can improve torque and speed by up to 20 per cent. It is a commercialized version of algorithms invented and used by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the company said. According to Dr. Marc Perron, President at Alizem, the algorithms incorporated into the company's software Intellectual Property are meant to work with brushless direct current (BLDC) and permanent magnet synchronous (PMSM) motor control designs where energy-efficiency and reliability are critical. He said this software can be ported to and run on any new or existing electric motor drive systems. Among the benefits he claims it brings to inverter-fed electric motor drive system designers are: 1) Optimal management of phase current distribution lowering losses and enhancing maximum achievable torque and speed by 20% leading to lower motor rating, weight, space and cooling requirements 2) Ripple-free torque leading to reduced mechanical stress, velocity fluctuation, noise and higher reliability and tracking accuracy in servo applications 3) Automatic fault recovery from a phase winding failure and/or phase voltage/current saturation 4) the ability to provide critical information regarding motor health to master systems in such application environments such as industrial control networks using many-to-many machine to machine connectivity 5) an application programming interface wrapper around the algorithms that allow for easier development as well as safe operation and which includes multiple debug modes for power stage, transducer and system protection verification for early bug detection. Current uses of the algorithms, he said, are in critical applications ranging from airplane brake systems, robotics and electric vehicles to HVAC systems installed in a nuclear plant. "In many of those applications, electric motors play a central role and failure may lead to catastrophic human and financial consequences," said Perron. "This is why the motor control software installed in those motor drive systems must not only deliver excellent operational performance but must also be robust to motor damage in order to reduce the risk of failure and downtime. "This also includes consuming as low energy as possible to maximise operation time when systems are operating from a limited energy source such as batteries or gas tank." The software IP the company has commercialized appears to make use of -among other things—a novel back BLDC waveform that minimises power dissipation, subject to current and voltage limits of the motor's drivers. When one or more phases reach their voltage and/or current saturation levels, the algorithms reshape stator currents of the remaining phases for continuing accurate, ripple-free torque production. It automatically reshapes the excitation currents in such a way that the motor continues to generate the torque that is requested. For optimal phase currents at given angular position, the control algorithm allows the motor to operate above the rated speed and torque that would be achieved without current reshaping. The company claims this optimal management of the motor's excitation currents can significantly increase the rated speed or torque of the motor in the face of voltage and current limits of the drivers. Perron said experiments show that the maximum torque capability is boosted by 20% when the phase saturation is considered in the phase current shape function. In addition, the torque controller can be used as a remedial strategy to compensate for a phase failure by optimally reshaping the currents of the remaining healthy phases for accurate torque production. The control algorithm allows the motor to optimally generate precise torque, even when operating under a phase failure. Traditional approaches By comparison, in traditional BLDC motor designs, electric power is distributed by an electronically controlled commutation system using a feedback from the rotor angular position into a control system, which excites the stator coils of the motor in a specific order, in order to rotate the magnetic field generated by the coils to be followed along by the rotor. He said these conventional drivers of BLDC motors produce sinusoidal (or, alternatively, trapezoidal) current waveforms for smooth motor operation. In practice, however, said Perron, non-ideal motors do not have a perfect sinusoidal distribution of magneto-motive force, and hence the sinusoidal commutation can result in torque ripple. Suppressing the torque ripple of the motor drive of the servo system, the company claims, can significantly improve system performance by reducing speed fluctuations. The limitation of this approach is that the motor's drivers have fixed rated current and voltage limits, and some of them may not be able to deliver the current inputs dictated by the electronic commutator which may occur when the motor operates at high torque or speed. Consequently, the performance of the torque production may significantly deteriorate as a result of the phase current distortions caused by the voltage or current saturation of the amplifiers. When there is a fixed inverter voltage and current, flux weakening allows a BLDC motor to operate above the base speed in constant-power, high-speed regions. Below the rated speed, all of the stator currents can be used to produce torque. Above the rated speed, a part of the stator current must be used to oppose the permanent magnet flux while the remaining portion is used to produce torque. Using optimal excitation currents In the CSA algorithms the company uses, a closed-form solution for optimal excitation currents is used for accurate torque control of brushless motors that minimises power dissipation, subject to current and voltage limits of a motor's drivers. When the motor terminal voltages and/or phase currents reach their saturation levels, the controller automatically reshapes the excitation currents in such a way that the motor generates torque as requested. This optimal management of the motor's excitation currents, the company claims, can significantly increase the rated speed or torque of the motor in the face of the voltage and current limits of the drivers. A novel aspect of this CSA technology, said the company, is the efficient use of non-linear feedback from the rotor's angular position and angular rate (speed) that makes accurate torque production possible when the voltage or current of one or more phases reach their saturation level, or when phase failure occurs. The CSA control algorithm permits torque sharing among phases when some phases saturate which results in a considerable increase in the attainable maximum motor torque. In order to evaluate the performance of the optimal torque controller, experiments were conducted on a three-phase synchronous motor with nine pole pairs. Perron said experiments show that the maximum torque capability is boosted by 20% when the phase saturation is considered in the phase current shape function. Experimental results obtained from a brushless servomotor under the proposed torque controller demonstrated accurate torque production under voltage/current saturation of the motor's drivers or failure of one phase.
  • 热度 2
    2014-2-28 19:42
    1317 次阅读|
    0 个评论
    I've just learned about a development that—if true—will likely catch the eye of motor control engineers and software developers in everything from industrial automation and robotics to automobile engine and drive chain applications. Specifically, a small Canadian start-up called Alizem has released motor control software IP that it claims can improve torque and speed by up to 20 per cent. It is a commercialized version of algorithms invented and used by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the company said. According to Dr. Marc Perron, President at Alizem, the algorithms incorporated into the company's software Intellectual Property are meant to work with brushless direct current (BLDC) and permanent magnet synchronous (PMSM) motor control designs where energy-efficiency and reliability are critical. He said this software can be ported to and run on any new or existing electric motor drive systems. Among the benefits he claims it brings to inverter-fed electric motor drive system designers are: 1) Optimal management of phase current distribution lowering losses and enhancing maximum achievable torque and speed by 20% leading to lower motor rating, weight, space and cooling requirements 2) Ripple-free torque leading to reduced mechanical stress, velocity fluctuation, noise and higher reliability and tracking accuracy in servo applications 3) Automatic fault recovery from a phase winding failure and/or phase voltage/current saturation 4) the ability to provide critical information regarding motor health to master systems in such application environments such as industrial control networks using many-to-many machine to machine connectivity 5) an application programming interface wrapper around the algorithms that allow for easier development as well as safe operation and which includes multiple debug modes for power stage, transducer and system protection verification for early bug detection. Current uses of the algorithms, he said, are in critical applications ranging from airplane brake systems, robotics and electric vehicles to HVAC systems installed in a nuclear plant. "In many of those applications, electric motors play a central role and failure may lead to catastrophic human and financial consequences," said Perron. "This is why the motor control software installed in those motor drive systems must not only deliver excellent operational performance but must also be robust to motor damage in order to reduce the risk of failure and downtime. "This also includes consuming as low energy as possible to maximise operation time when systems are operating from a limited energy source such as batteries or gas tank." The software IP the company has commercialized appears to make use of -among other things—a novel back BLDC waveform that minimises power dissipation, subject to current and voltage limits of the motor's drivers. When one or more phases reach their voltage and/or current saturation levels, the algorithms reshape stator currents of the remaining phases for continuing accurate, ripple-free torque production. It automatically reshapes the excitation currents in such a way that the motor continues to generate the torque that is requested. For optimal phase currents at given angular position, the control algorithm allows the motor to operate above the rated speed and torque that would be achieved without current reshaping. The company claims this optimal management of the motor's excitation currents can significantly increase the rated speed or torque of the motor in the face of voltage and current limits of the drivers. Perron said experiments show that the maximum torque capability is boosted by 20% when the phase saturation is considered in the phase current shape function. In addition, the torque controller can be used as a remedial strategy to compensate for a phase failure by optimally reshaping the currents of the remaining healthy phases for accurate torque production. The control algorithm allows the motor to optimally generate precise torque, even when operating under a phase failure. Traditional approaches By comparison, in traditional BLDC motor designs, electric power is distributed by an electronically controlled commutation system using a feedback from the rotor angular position into a control system, which excites the stator coils of the motor in a specific order, in order to rotate the magnetic field generated by the coils to be followed along by the rotor. He said these conventional drivers of BLDC motors produce sinusoidal (or, alternatively, trapezoidal) current waveforms for smooth motor operation. In practice, however, said Perron, non-ideal motors do not have a perfect sinusoidal distribution of magneto-motive force, and hence the sinusoidal commutation can result in torque ripple. Suppressing the torque ripple of the motor drive of the servo system, the company claims, can significantly improve system performance by reducing speed fluctuations. The limitation of this approach is that the motor's drivers have fixed rated current and voltage limits, and some of them may not be able to deliver the current inputs dictated by the electronic commutator which may occur when the motor operates at high torque or speed. Consequently, the performance of the torque production may significantly deteriorate as a result of the phase current distortions caused by the voltage or current saturation of the amplifiers. When there is a fixed inverter voltage and current, flux weakening allows a BLDC motor to operate above the base speed in constant-power, high-speed regions. Below the rated speed, all of the stator currents can be used to produce torque. Above the rated speed, a part of the stator current must be used to oppose the permanent magnet flux while the remaining portion is used to produce torque. Using optimal excitation currents In the CSA algorithms the company uses, a closed-form solution for optimal excitation currents is used for accurate torque control of brushless motors that minimises power dissipation, subject to current and voltage limits of a motor's drivers. When the motor terminal voltages and/or phase currents reach their saturation levels, the controller automatically reshapes the excitation currents in such a way that the motor generates torque as requested. This optimal management of the motor's excitation currents, the company claims, can significantly increase the rated speed or torque of the motor in the face of the voltage and current limits of the drivers. A novel aspect of this CSA technology, said the company, is the efficient use of non-linear feedback from the rotor's angular position and angular rate (speed) that makes accurate torque production possible when the voltage or current of one or more phases reach their saturation level, or when phase failure occurs. The CSA control algorithm permits torque sharing among phases when some phases saturate which results in a considerable increase in the attainable maximum motor torque. In order to evaluate the performance of the optimal torque controller, experiments were conducted on a three-phase synchronous motor with nine pole pairs. Perron said experiments show that the maximum torque capability is boosted by 20% when the phase saturation is considered in the phase current shape function. Experimental results obtained from a brushless servomotor under the proposed torque controller demonstrated accurate torque production under voltage/current saturation of the motor's drivers or failure of one phase.  
  • 2013-10-21 06:06
    391 次阅读|
    0 个评论
    博客开张! 记录一下工作学习中的项目, 基于FPGA的三相无刷直流电机位置控制...
  • 热度 7
    2012-9-7 15:26
    4102 次阅读|
    3 个评论
    作者:简文烯 飞兆半导体 研究表明,在普通现代家庭的总耗电量中,高达 70% 的电力皆由冰箱、洗衣机、空调、风扇和吸尘器等电器的电机所消耗。 例如,2007 年台湾的总耗电量为 1172 亿度,其中,电机的耗电量约为 800 亿度。根据台湾工程研究所的研究,如果电机能效提高 10%,则每年可省电 100 亿度,相当于一座大型核电站所生产的电力。 目前,最优质的节能家电通常使用无刷直流 (brushless DC,BLDC) 电机,因为与交流电机及有刷直流电机相比,它们的体积更小,更为安静且更具可靠性,运行效率更高。 使用空间矢量 PWM 控制的好处 不过,提及控制 BLDC 电机,设计师们仍有诸多选择。 在消费类产品中,空间矢量脉宽调制 (SVPWM) 是一个绝佳的选择,因为它可提供相当高的准确度,降低噪音,减少总谐波失真 (THD),而且价格相当实惠。 SVPWM 利用相对成熟的技术产生基础正弦波。 其中包括通过在转子和定子之间形成圆形旋转场所产生的三相波形。 SVPWM 控制器利用通过不同切换模式所产生的场通量来接近基础圆磁场。 为启用切换控制并创建所需的PWM 波,控制器会比较所产生的实际磁场和基础圆磁场。 在 BLDC 电机中,控制器和电机被视为一个整体装置。 SVPWM 控制器通过内切多边形的方式接近圆磁场,产生恒定的场幅和圆磁场。 SVPWM 使用的磁通量法 SVPWM 控制器使用其中一种磁通量法(共两种):开环或闭环。开环法使用两个非零矢量加一个零矢量,生成一个等效电压矢量。 电压矢量仅受取样时间限制。 使用开环法生成的输出电压通常比使用正弦调制生成的输出电压高 15%,并且有效谐波电流之和接近最小值。 然而,开环法也有缺点,它无法克服低速运行时具有较高阻值的定子电阻的影响。 闭环法通过引入磁通量反馈来控制通量和变化率,克服了这个问题。 通过比较预估磁通量与给定磁通量的比较,最终确定可产生所需 PWM 波的下一个电压矢量。 因而可提高性能,减少振动和噪音。 Fairchild 提供了几种电机控制器,特别适用于使用 SVPWM 控制的 BLDC。 尤其是 FCM8201 和 FCM8202 控制器,它们具有两种驱动模式(正弦波和方波),可让设计师基于目标应用优化性能。 正弦波模式适用于吸尘器、空调、冰箱、洗衣机、洗碗机、风扇和其它家电,具有平稳、噪音小及运行时无振动等特点。 方形波模式建议用于大功率输出的应用,如车辆、泵、机床、工业风机和户外用具。 它可提供较高的扭矩,减少开关损耗,但会降低转子反馈的准确性。 FCM8201 和 FCM8202 支持两种运行模式,具有综合保护功能,可减少设计师开发软件保护功能的需要。 如图 1 所示,有三种过流保护: 电流过载保护,其中临界电压 (VOCP_OL) 为 1.4 V;逐周期电流保护,其中临界电压 (VOCP_CYC) 为 1.5 V,及短路电流保护,其中临界电压 (VOCP_SH) 为 2.5 V。 图 1. FCM8201 和 FCM8202 电机控制器中的过流保护 图 2 显示家用风扇中的 FCM8201 和 FCM8202。 系统配备有无线连接,可使用遥控器进行远程控制,还具有智能功能(如可选速度),可让消费者轻松改善家居环境。 图 2. 带 BLDC 电机智能控制的家用风扇方块图 结论 BLDC 电机在降低家用电器能耗方面极具潜力。 Fairchild FCM8201 和 FCM8202 BLDC 控制器以两种驱动模式运行,因此,设计师可量身定制其性能和保护装置,既可增加可靠性,又能节约设计时间。 若与 Fairchild 功率管理产品组合中的其它产品组合使用,这些元器件可快速打造高性能及高效率兼具的家用电器。
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