原创 intel hex 格式

2009-3-5 22:33 2584 4 4 分类: MCU/ 嵌入式
Intel HEX文件是由一行行符合Intel HEX文件格式的文本所构成的ASCII文本文件。在Intel
HEX文件中,每一行包含一个HEX记录。这些记录由对应机器语言码和/或常量数据的十六进制编码数字组成。Intel
HEX文件通常用于传输将被存于ROM或者EPROM中的程序和数据。大多数EPROM编程器或模拟器使用Intel HEX文件。

记录格式
Intel HEX由任意数量的十六进制记录组成。每个记录包含5个域,它们按以下格式排列:
:llaaaatt[dd...]cc
每一组字母对应一个不同的域,每一个字母对应一个十六进制编码的数字。每一个域由至少两个十六进制编码数字组成,它们构成一个字节,就像以下描述的那样:
: 每个Intel HEX记录都由冒号开头.
ll 是数据长度域,它代表记录当中数据字节(dd)的数量.
aaaa 是地址域,它代表记录当中数据的起始地址.
tt 是代表HEX记录类型的域,它可能是以下数据当中的一个:
00 – 数据记录
01 – 文件结束记录
02 – 扩展段地址记录
04 – 扩展线性地址记录
dd 是数据域,它代表一个字节的数据.一个记录可以有许多数据字节.记录当中数据字节的数量必须和数据长度域(ll)中指定的数字相符.
cc 是校验和域,它表示这个记录的校验和.校验和的计算是通过将记录当中所有十六进制编码数字对的值相加,以256为模进行以下补足.

数据记录
Intel HEX文件由任意数量以回车换行符结束的数据记录组成.数据记录外观如下:
:10246200464C5549442050524F46494C4500464C33
其中:
10 是这个记录当中数据字节的数量.
2462 是数据将被下载到存储器当中的地址.
00 是记录类型(数据记录)
464C…464C是数据.
33 是这个记录的校验和.

扩展线性地址记录(HEX386)
扩展线性地址记录也叫作32位地址记录或HEX386记录.这些记录包含数据地址的高16位.扩展线性地址记录总是有两个数据字节,外观如下:
:02000004FFFFFC
其中:
02 是这个记录当中数据字节的数量.
0000 是地址域,对于扩展线性地址记录,这个域总是0000.
04 是记录类型 04(扩展线性地址记录)
FFFF 是地址的高16位.
FC 是这个记录的校验和,计算方法如下:
01h + NOT(02h + 00h + 00h + 04h + FFh + FFh).
当一个扩展线性地址记录被读取,存储于数据域的扩展线性地址被保存,它被应用于从Intel HEX文件读取来的随后的记录.线性地址保持有效,直到它被另外一个扩展地址记录所改变.
通过把记录当中的地址域与被移位的来自扩展线性地址记录的地址数据相加获得数据记录的绝对存储器地址.
以下的例子演示了这个过程..
来自数据记录地址域的地址                              2462
扩展线性地址记录的数据域                      + FFFF
                                  ------------
绝对存储器地址                               FFFF2462

扩展段地址记录(HEX86)
扩展段地址记录也叫HEX86记录,它包括4-19位数据地址段.扩展段地址记录总是有两个数据字节,外观如下:
:020000021200EA
其中:
02 是记录当中数据字节的数量.
0000 是地址域.对于扩展段地址记录,这个域总是0000.
02 是记录类型 02(扩展段地址记录)
1200 是地址段.
EA 是这个记录的校验和,计算方法如下:
01h + NOT(02h + 00h + 00h + 02h + 12h + 00h).
当一个扩展段地址记录被读取,存储于数据域的扩展段地址被保存,它被应用于从Intel HEX文件读取来的随后的记录.段地址保持有效,直到它被另外一个扩展地址记录所改变.
通过把记录当中的地址域与被移位的来自扩展段地址记录的地址数据相加获得数据记录的绝对存储器地址.
以下的例子演示了这个过程..
来自数据记录地址域的地址                             2462
扩展段地址记录数据域                      +  1200
                                 ---------
绝对存储器地址                    00014462

文件结束(EOF)记录
Intel HEX文件必须以文件结束(EOF)记录结束.这个记录的记录类型域的值必须是01.EOF记录外观总是如下:
:00000001FF
其中:
00 是记录当中数据字节的数量.
0000 是数据被下载到存储器当中的地址.在文件结束记录当中地址是没有意义被忽略的.0000h是典型的地址.
01 是记录类型 01(文件结束记录)
FF 是这个记录的校验和,计算方法如下:
01h + NOT(00h + 00h + 00h + 01h).

Intel HEX文件例子:
下面是一个完整的Intel HEX文件的例子:
:10001300AC12AD13AE10AF1112002F8E0E8F0F2244
:10000300E50B250DF509E50A350CF5081200132259
:03000000020023D8
:0C002300787FE4F6D8FD7581130200031D
:10002F00EFF88DF0A4FFEDC5F0CEA42EFEEC88F016
:04003F00A42EFE22CB
:00000001FF



附:英文原文
QUESTION
What is the Intel HEX file format?
ANSWER
The Intel HEX file is an ASCII text file with lines of text that follow the
Intel HEX file format. Each line in an Intel HEX file contains one HEX record.
These records are made up of hexadecimal numbers that represent machine
language code and/or constant data. Intel HEX files are often used to transfer
the program and data that would be stored in a ROM or EPROM. Most EPROM
programmers or emulators can use Intel HEX files.
Record Format
An Intel HEX file is composed of any number of HEX records. Each record is made
up of five fields that are arranged in the following format:
:llaaaatt[dd...]cc
Each group of letters corresponds to a different field, and each letter
represents a single hexadecimal digit. Each field is composed of at least two
hexadecimal digits-which make up a byte-as described below:
: is the colon that starts every Intel HEX record.
ll is the record-length field that represents the number of data bytes (dd) in
the record.
aaaa is the address field that represents the starting address for subsequent
data in the record.
tt is the field that represents the HEX record type, which may be one of the
following:
00 - data record
01 - end-of-file record
02 - extended segment address record
04 - extended linear address record
dd is a data field that represents one byte of data. A record may have multiple
data bytes. The number of data bytes in the record must match the number
specified by the ll field.
cc is the checksum field that represents the checksum of the record. The
checksum is calculated by summing the values of all hexadecimal digit pairs in
the record modulo 256 and taking the two's complement.
Data Records
The Intel HEX file is made up of any number of data records that are terminated
with a carriage return and a linefeed. Data records appear as follows:
:10246200464C5549442050524F46494C4500464C33
where:
10 is the number of data bytes in the record.
2462 is the address where the data are to be located in memory.
00 is the record type 00 (a data record).
464C...464C is the data.
33 is the checksum of the record.
Extended Linear Address Records (HEX386)
Extended linear address records are also known as 32-bit address records and
HEX386 records. These records contain the upper 16 bits (bits 16-31) of the
data address. The extended linear address record always has two data bytes and
appears as follows:
:02000004FFFFFC
where:
02 is the number of data bytes in the record.
0000 is the address field. For the extended linear address record, this field
is always 0000.
04 is the record type 04 (an extended linear address record).
FFFF is the upper 16 bits of the address.
FC is the checksum of the record and is calculated as
01h + NOT(02h + 00h + 00h + 04h + FFh + FFh).
When an extended linear address record is read, the extended linear address
stored in the data field is saved and is applied to subsequent records read
from the Intel HEX file. The linear address remains effective until changed by
another extended address record.
The absolute-memory address of a data record is obtained by adding the address
field in the record to the shifted address data from the extended linear
address record. The following example illustrates this process..
Address from the data record's address field      2462
Extended linear address record data field     FFFF
                                              --------
Absolute-memory address                       FFFF2462
Extended Segment Address Records (HEX86)
Extended segment address records-also known as HEX86 records-contain bits 4-19
of the data address segment. The extended segment address record always has two
data bytes and appears as follows:
:020000021200EA
where:
02 is the number of data bytes in the record.
0000 is the address field. For the extended segment address record, this field
is always 0000.
02 is the record type 02 (an extended segment address record).
1200 is the segment of the address.
EA is the checksum of the record and is calculated as
01h + NOT(02h + 00h + 00h + 02h + 12h + 00h).
When an extended segment address record is read, the extended segment address
stored in the data field is saved and is applied to subsequent records read
from the Intel HEX file. The segment address remains effective until changed by
another extended address record.
The absolute-memory address of a data record is obtained by adding the address
field in the record to the shifted-address data from the extended segment
address record. The following example illustrates this process.
Address from the data record's address field     2462
Extended segment address record data field      1200
                                             --------
Absolute memory address                      00014462
End-of-File (EOF) Records
An Intel HEX file must end with an end-of-file (EOF) record. This record must
have the value 01 in the record type field. An EOF record always appears as
follows:
:00000001FF
where:
00 is the number of data bytes in the record.
0000 is the address where the data are to be located in memory. The address in
end-of-file records is meaningless and is ignored. An address of 0000h is
typical.
01 is the record type 01 (an end-of-file record).
FF is the checksum of the record and is calculated as
01h + NOT(00h + 00h + 00h + 01h).
Example Intel HEX File
Following is an example of a complete Intel HEX file:
:10001300AC12AD13AE10AF1112002F8E0E8F0F2244
:10000300E50B250DF509E50A350CF5081200132259
:03000000020023D8
:0C002300787FE4F6D8FD7581130200031D
:10002F00EFF88DF0A4FFEDC5F0CEA42EFEEC88F016
:04003F00A42EFE22CB
:00000001FF

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